CCSS Standards 11-12

Reading Literature

 Key Skills  Specific or Recommended Texts
Key Ideas and Details    
Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.
  • Cite evidence
  • Make inferences
POETRY

  • “Ode on a Grecian Urn” by John Keats (1820)
  • “Because I Could Not Stop for Death” by Emily Dickinson (1890)
  • Shakespeare
  • 18th-century
  • 19th-century
  • 20th-century

 

Determine two or more themes or central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to produce a complex account; provide an objective summary of the text.
  • 2 or more themes in one text
  • Analyze how they interact
NOVEL

  • Jane Eyre by Charlotte Brontë (1848)
  • The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald (1925)
  • Their Eyes Were Watching God by Zora Neale Hurston (1937)
  • The Namesake by Jhumpa Lahiri (2003)
  • 18th-century
  • 19th-century
  • 20th-century

 

Analyze the impact of the author’s choices regarding how to develop and relate elements of a story or drama (e.g., where a story is set, how the action is ordered, how the characters are introduced and developed).
  • Analyze author’s choices
    • o Setting
    • o Plot order
    • o Development of characters
DRAMAA Raisin in the Sun by Lorraine Hansberry (1959)American dramatist

  • 18th-century
  • 19th-century
  • 20th-century
Craft and Structure    
Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including words with multiple meanings or language that is particularly fresh, engaging, or beautiful. (Include Shakespeare as well as other authors.)
  • Analyze how words used in context
  • Figurative language
  • Connotation
  • Meaning
  • Tone

 

NONFICTION

  • Common Sense by Thomas Paine (1776)
  • The Federalist Papers
  • Walden by Henry David Thoreau (1854)
  • “Society and Solitude” by Ralph Waldo Emerson (1857)
  • “The Fallacy of Success” by G. K. Chesterton (1909)
  • Black Boy by Richard Wright (1945)
  • “Politics and the English Language” by George Orwell (1946)
  • “Take the Tortillas Out of Your Poetry” by Rudolfo Anaya (1995)
  • 18th-century
  • 19th-century
  • 20th-century
Analyze how an author’s choices concerning how to structure specific parts of a text (e.g., the choice of where to begin or end a story, the choice to provide a comedic or tragic resolution) contribute to its overall structure and meaning as well as its aesthetic impact.
  • Analyze structure
  • Analyze type of ending
  • How do these fit into the bigger picture
Seminal U.S. Documents

  • U.S. Supreme Court majority opinions and dissents
  • Premises, purposes, and arguments in works of public advocacy (e.g., The Federalist)
  • Presidentialaddresses
  • The Declaration of Independence
  • Preamble to the Constitution
  • Bill of Rights
  • Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address
Analyze a case in which grasping point of view requires distinguishing what is directly stated in a text from what is really meant (e.g., satire, sarcasm, irony, orunderstatement).
  • Point of view
  • Satire, sarcasm, irony
 
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas    
Analyze multiple interpretations of a story, drama, or poem (e.g., recorded or live production of a play or recorded novel or poetry), evaluating how each version interprets the source text. (Include at least one play by Shakespeare and one play by an American dramatist.)
  • Analyze two or more interpretations of the same text
 
Demonstrate knowledge of eighteenth-, nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century foundational works of American literature, including how two or more texts from the same period treat similar themes or topics.
  • Analyze how two or more texts from the same period treat similar topics
  • 17th-Century
  • 18th-century
  • 19th-century
  • 20th-century
 
Range of Reading    
By the end of grade 11, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 11–CCR text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend literature, including stories,dramas, and poems, at the high end of the grades 11–CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently.    

 

Reading Informational Texts

 Key Skills  Specific or Recommended Texts
Key Ideas and Details    Range: Lexile Level 1215–1355 
 Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.
  •  Cite evidence
  • Analyze explicit meaning
  • Analyze inferential evidence
POETRY

  • “Ode on a Grecian Urn” by John Keats (1820)
  • “Because I Could Not Stop for Death” by Emily Dickinson (1890)
  • Shakespeare
  • 18th-century
  • 19th-century
  • 20th-century

 

 Determine two or more central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to provide a complex analysis; provide an objective summary of the text.
  •  Analyze two or more central ideas
  • Analyze how they build on each other
NOVEL

  • Jane Eyre by Charlotte Brontë (1848)
  • The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald (1925)
  • Their Eyes Were Watching God by Zora Neale Hurston (1937)
  • The Namesake by Jhumpa Lahiri (2003)
  • 18th-century
  • 19th-century
  • 20th-century

 

 Analyze a complex set of ideas or sequence of events and explain how specific individuals, ideas, or events interact and develop over the course of the text.
  • Analyze a set of ideas or events
  • Explain how they interact and develop
DRAMAA Raisin in the Sun by Lorraine Hansberry (1959)American dramatist

  • 18th-century
  • 19th-century
  • 20th-century
Craft and Structure    
Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze how an author uses and refines the meaning of a key term or terms over the course of a text (e.g., how Madison defines faction in Federalist No. 10).
  •  Determine diction à meaning
  • How an author uses key term

 

NONFICTION

  • Common Sense by Thomas Paine (1776)
  • The Federalist Papers
  • Walden by Henry David Thoreau (1854)
  • “Society and Solitude” by Ralph Waldo Emerson (1857)
  • “The Fallacy of Success” by G. K. Chesterton (1909)
  • Black Boy by Richard Wright (1945)
  • “Politics and the English Language” by George Orwell (1946)
  • “Take the Tortillas Out of Your Poetry” by Rudolfo Anaya (1995)
  • 18th-century
  • 19th-century
  • 20th-century

 

Analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of the structure an author uses in his or her exposition or argument, including whether the structure makes points clear, convincing, and engaging.
  •  Effectiveness of structure
  • Analyze the argument
  • Evaluate effectiveness of the argument
SEMINAL U.S. DOCUMENTS

  • U.S. Supreme Court majority opinions and dissents
  • Premises, purposes, and arguments in works of public advocacy (e.g., The Federalist)
  • Presidentialaddresses
  • The Declaration of Independence
  • Preamble to the Constitution
  • Bill of Rights
  • Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address
Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text in which the rhetoric is particularly effective, analyzing how style and content contribute to the power, persuasiveness, or beauty of the text.
  •  Determine author’s point
  • Analyze how style and content help an author communicate the point
INDEPENDENT READINGNote: CCSS repeatedly stresses the need for students to be able to read independently.
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas    
Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words in order to address a question or solve a problem.
  •  Integrate multiple sources of information in order to solve a problem
 
Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in seminal U.S. texts, including the application of constitutional principles and use of legal reasoning (e.g., in U.S. Supreme Court majority opinions and dissents) and the premises, purposes, and arguments in works of public advocacy (e.g., The Federalist, presidential addresses).
  •  Evaluate reasoning in U.S. texts
  • Evaluate premises, purposes, and arguments
 
Analyze seventeenth-, eighteenth-, and nineteenth-century foundational U.S. documents of historical and literary significance (including The Declaration of Independence, the Preamble to the Constitution, the Bill of Rights, and Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address) for their themes, purposes, and rhetorical features.
  • Analyze 17th-19th century foundational texts
  • Analyze themes
  • Analyze purposes
  • Analyze rhetorical features
 
Range of Reading    
By the end of grade 11, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 11–CCR text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend literary nonfiction at the high end of the grades 11–CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently. Lexile Level 1215–1355  

 

Writing

 Key Skills
Text Types and Purposes  
 Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

  1. Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
  2. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.
  3. Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
  4. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
  5. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.

 

ARGUMENTATION

  • Establish claims
  • Distinguish from opposing claims
  • Introduce counterclaims
  • Support with evidence
  • Use transitions

 

Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.

  1. Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information so that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
  2. Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
  3. Use appropriate and varied transitions and syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
  4. Use precise language, domain-specific vocabulary, and techniques such as metaphor, simile, and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic.
  5. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
  6. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).

 

EXPLANATORY ESSAYS

  • Introduce topic
  • Develop by extended definitions and details
  • Use quotes or examples
  • Use transitions
  • Use metaphor, simile, analogy
  • Formal style, objective tone
 Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.

  1. Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation and its significance, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view, and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.
  2. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
  3. Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole and build toward a particular tone and outcome (e.g., a sense of mystery, suspense, growth, or resolution).
  4. Use precise words and phrases, telling details, and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.
  5. Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative.

 

NARRATIVE ESSAYS

  • Set out a problem
  • Establish POV
  • Introduce character
  • Use dialogue and plotlines
  • Sequence events
  • Use telling details
  • Use sensory language
Production and Distribution of Writing  
Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
  • Produce clear writing

 

 Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1–3 up to and including grades 11–12 on page 54.)
  •  Edit writing
  • Demonstrate command of language standards (all)

 

 Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products in response to ongoing feedback, including new arguments or information.
  •  Use technology to produce or update writing products
Research to Build and Present Knowledge  
 Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. RESEARCH PROJECTS

  • Answer a questions
  • Solve a problem
  • Synthesize multiple sources

 

 Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation.
  •  Print and digital
  • Integrate info smoothly
  • Avoid plagiarism
Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

  1. Apply grades 11–12 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Demonstrate knowledge of eighteenth-, nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century foundational works of American literature, including how two or more texts from the same period treat similar themes or topics”).
  2. Apply grades 11–12 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., “Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in seminal U.S. texts, including the application of constitutional principles and use of legal reasoning [e.g., in U.S. Supreme Court Case majority opinions and dissents] and the premises, purposes, and arguments in works of public advocacy [e.g., The Federalist, presidential addresses]”).

 

  • Draw evidence from literary or informational texts
  • 18th-early 20th-century texts
  • How two or more texts convey similar topics
  • Evaluate reasoning
Range of Writing  
 Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences. Write routinely over short- and long-term

 

Speaking and Listening

 Key Skills
Text Types and Purposes  
 1. Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 11–12 topics,texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.

  1. Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.
  2. Work with peers to promote civil, democratic discussions and decision-making, set clear goals and deadlines, and establish individual roles as needed.
  3. Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that probe reasoning and evidence; ensure a hearing for a full range of positions on a topic or issue; clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions; and promote divergent and creative perspectives.
  4. Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives; synthesize comments, claims, and evidence made on all sides of an issue; resolve contradictions when possible; and determine what additional information.

 

  •  Talk about issues relevant to 11th-grade topics, texts, and issues
  • Do small- and large-group discussions
  • Come to discussions prepared
  • Base your ideas on evidence
  • Work with peers
  • Ask and answer questions
  • Probe reasoning
  • Challenge ideas
  • Resolve contradictions

 

Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) in order to make informed decisions and solve problems, evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source and noting any discrepancies among the data.
  •  Integrate multiple sources of information in order to solve problems
  • Evaluate credibility
  • Note discrepancies

 

Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, assessing the stance, premises, links among ideas, word choice, points of emphasis, and tone used.
  •  Evaluate a speaker’s POV
  • Evaluate use of evidence
  • Evaluate rhetoric

 

Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas  
 Present information, findings, and supporting evidence, conveying a clear and distinct perspective, such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning, alternative or opposing perspectives are addressed, and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and a range of formal and informal tasks.
  • Present information and findings
  • Convey clear perspective
  • Organize ideas

 

 Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest.
  •  Make strategic use of media to enhance findings

 

 Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating a command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grades 11–12 Language standards 1 and 3 on page 54 for specific expectations.)
  •  Adapt speech to contexts

 

Language Skills (Grammar)

 Key Skills
 Conventions of Standard English  
 1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

  1. Apply the understanding that usage is a matter of convention, can change over time, and is sometimes contested.
  2. Resolve issues of complex or contested usage, consulting references (e.g., Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary of English Usage, Garner’s Modern American Usage) as needed.

 

  • Use standard English when writing or speaking

 

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

  1. Observe hyphenation conventions.
  2. Spell correctly.
  • Demonstrate conventions
  • Use hyphens correctly
  • Spell correctly

 

 Knowledge of Language  
 3. Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.

  1. Vary syntax for effect, consulting references (e.g., Tufte’s Artful Sentences) for guidance as needed; apply an understanding of syntax to the study of complex texts when reading.

 

  •  Vary syntax
  • Apply understanding of syntax to text

 

Vocabulary Acquisition  
4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grades 11–12 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

  1. Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  2. Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., conceive, conception, conceivable).
  3. Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, its etymology, or its standard usage.
  4. Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).

 

  • Clarify meaning of words
5. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.

  1. Interpret figures of speech (e.g., hyperbole, paradox) in context and analyze their role in the text.
  2. Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations.
  • Understand figurative language
  • Interpret figures of speech
  • Analyze nuance
6. Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.
  • Use academic language
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